Naval Engines - Rotate that shaft!

Today we take a quick tour through the primary ways of turning steam into rotation, the ships engines.


Sources:
Naval Reciprocating Engines and Auxiliary Machinery - Barton and Stickne
Naval Engines and Machinery - Barton
A Short History of Naval and Marine Engineering - Smith
U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History - Friedman
The Steam Turbine - Parsons
www.naval-history.net/WW0Book-Sennett-MarineSteamEngine.htm#1




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Episodes in podcast format - soundcloud.com/user-21912004


Music - mnthe.info

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  • Pinned post for Q&A :)

    DrachinifelDrachinifelСарын өмнө
    • @Dennis Forcier Depends on the type of turbine. Usually the turbines are Parsons or a derivative and the inlet vanes are in groups and steam can be admitted to different groups, so maintaining the expansion ratio while the turbine speed varies. But efficiency is still much lower at low power. Only small turbines like de Laval or generator turbines have throttled 100% admission, and you would not find them on large ships.

      Alfred WedmoreAlfred Wedmore10 өдрийн өмнө
    • @James Harding Yes. A system of eccentric levers was developed so that the paddles entered the water in a more upright position. This improved the efficiency, but not enough to compete with props.

      Alfred WedmoreAlfred Wedmore10 өдрийн өмнө
    • @Robert Santamaria There were no tugs. They rowed out and dropped anchors and then used the anchor rope to pull the ship in the desired direction using a capstan.

      Alfred WedmoreAlfred Wedmore10 өдрийн өмнө
    • On ship they test energy used by Main Engine; steam lbm/hr to turn, wet vapor energy enthalpy by Mollier Diagrams showed on CVN -65 now decommissioned not 70000shp but at non peacetime energy used 80000. I did calorimetrics on plant. Calories used by entire plant. Vs Rx thermal energy. Bull gear 13 feet #1 shaft 2.5 million ftlb of torque plus. 35 ton prop on 500+ foot long shaft. Total went somewhere. No longer classified. She was faster than others by length, width plus 320k shp. Was Super Wasp class converted to nuke from oil based plant. Replaced by G R Ford. New one soon CVN -80 tshirt on now.

      Loves my KittiesLoves my Kitties10 өдрийн өмнө
    • YEAH DRECH .

      Donald LeavyDonald Leavy11 өдрийн өмнө
  • This seemed to confirm my opinion of hybrid cars... geerating electricity thenn converting the electricity back to motive power is not efficient

    catman492000catman49200015 цагийн өмнө
  • Great show, Old Man! Keep it up!

    Greg SmithGreg SmithӨдрийн өмнө
  • Here's my question. The last REAL propulsion innovation (not including hydrofoil patrol boats) for capital ships was the transition from sails. Is it possible to expect any major propulsion innovations in the near future?

    Dadu RonronronDadu RonronronӨдрийн өмнө
  • Excellent as usual. A very good channel but when you were describing side lever engines and similar you mentioned “cylinder head” when I think you meant “piston”. Keep up the good work!

    Leslie ChatfieldLeslie ChatfieldӨдрийн өмнө
  • Diesels can run on HFO - heavy fuel oil, never heard of one running on Bunker C like a boiler, at least in the wild. Most of the time, at least on merchant ship, the engineers will switch over to a lighter diesel fuel for maneuvering prior to taking arrival. While more expensive, DO allows for faster engine response to speed change orders.

    Stephen BrittonStephen Britton12 өдрийн өмнө
  • # Drachinifel Why do you keep calling a "piston" a "cylinder head"?

    Mike AMike A14 өдрийн өмнө
  • Que pena que no haya una traduccion al español :( aun asi tus videos son tan buenos que solo me cuesta un poco en entenderte, sigue asi 👍🏼

    CH2021 :pCH2021 :p16 өдрийн өмнө
  • US Navy boiler technician here. 1980 to 1984 U.S.S Gridley...love you guys.🏴‍☠️

    Curtis BtyantCurtis Btyant20 өдрийн өмнө
  • what is the intro music ?

    XX21 өдрийн өмнө
  • what engine was used on the the Monitor

    Henry GaudsmithHenry Gaudsmith22 өдрийн өмнө
  • If I’m remember correctly, the USS Texas BB 35 has a version of the 3 stage piston driven crankshaft main engines.... And they must be very reliable because the Old Texas steamed her butt off throughout her lifespan. I’m pretty sure that she was our only BB that actually served in both world wars. Thank you for the videos, as an ex-swaby myself, I really enjoy them.

    Sandy CarneySandy Carney22 өдрийн өмнө
  • your a very well spoken man. I wish you were my history teacher in school. I would have learned a lot more and much more properly

    Mudd RuddErMudd RuddEr22 өдрийн өмнө
  • Thanks for your wonderful videos, you have made my work days go by so much faster, and I know so much more as a result.

    Grumpy GrobbyGrumpy Grobby24 өдрийн өмнө
  • I'm not familiar with steam engine terminology but shouldn't your multiple references to the "cylinder head" instead apply to "the piston"?

    Mark ChippendaleMark Chippendale24 өдрийн өмнө
  • Bloody Fascinating stuff. Thank you!

    ArterialRedArterialRed26 өдрийн өмнө
  • A paddle wheel on a ship could be modified to pick up some of the plastic floating.

    Chadrach WilliamChadrach William28 өдрийн өмнө
  • This was so interesting that I have already purchased two of the reference books used.

    Steve RobertsSteve Roberts28 өдрийн өмнө
  • Very well done!

    ImagerImager29 өдрийн өмнө
  • Excellent video as always. However, you did give pretty short lip service to the submarine's propulsion of choice, diesel-electric.

    P AllenP AllenСарын өмнө
  • This has been hijacked by a bunch of SOB's putting up commercials and NOT the story it was supposed to be! BASTARDS!

    Richard ClineRichard ClineСарын өмнө
  • Modern double expansion internal combustion engine: mnthe.info/bill/video/fdpxyp6Zeod2h4w

    Ole BjørsvikOle BjørsvikСарын өмнө
  • Bellyblobs

    n picklen pickleСарын өмнө
  • 19:30 I believe that this is what we would call a boxer engine in the modern-day, although the piston heads seem to be inversed, either way, same concept

    The Wizard GamesThe Wizard GamesСарын өмнө
  • Anybody who wants to know why EVs are a BAD IDEA needs to listen in at about the 39 minute mark.

    DarkfinnDarkfinnСарын өмнө
  • No giggles in the Background. Would chuckles be ok?

    Robert GräfeRobert GräfeСарын өмнө
  • Awesome videos. I love to listen to them while im driving long distances.

    Robert SRobert SСарын өмнө
  • Congratulations on a really informative and well illustrated survey of a big subject! Two little quibbles: Should you have referred to the piston rather than the cylinder head in one or two cases when referring to steam engine configurations? And number 2: As a retired electrical engineer, I have to dispute the statement that electric transmission schemes: ' . .drag the efficiency of energy transmission all the way back down.' Yes - there are some energy losses in electric generators, motors and cabling, but as a % of the throughput power the losses are not too bad, except when operating at very low % of rated power (ie low ship speeds). There are some notable recent examples of electric power transmission schemes being adopted (aircraft carriers), using ac and electronic power converters instead of the dc machines of old.

    oakapple5oakapple5Сарын өмнө
  • As the grandson of a Machinist Mate aboard the U.S.S. Mississippi, you have put a smile on my face.

    human cattoyhuman cattoyСарын өмнө
  • Very good

    THE GRANDEST BAZAARTHE GRANDEST BAZAARСарын өмнө
  • Here is a video of the startup procedure of the comparably small triple expansion engine of the Swedish 1915 icebreaker "St Erik" (the huge black one moored behind the Vasa museum, Drach😉). It gives some understanding of why big steam ships cant just "get out of there" in case of surprise attack like in Pearl Harbour. mnthe.info/bill/video/isJwx6OVqYurcHw On the channel is also videos of the reversing procedure (no, you do not just shift it into "reverse").

    Andreas GladAndreas GladСарын өмнө
  • So no mercruiser?

    Mega MooseMega MooseСарын өмнө
  • Interesting topic, but too much detail and repetition for me. Best to increase the playback speed to at least 1.5. Even then it’s still toooooo long.

    M OSM OSСарын өмнө
    • @mercoid Quite the opposite. I listen with my full attention, particularly as such a video goes into great detail, which you don't find anywhere else. However I only have so much time, and I like the detail to be kept in pace with the structure of the overall story. Especially when told this will only be 5 minutes, but ends up at 35. It's also about respecting my time. It's why the history videos by Mark Felton are so great. Like you I suspect I no longer listen to headline grabbing TV shows and prefer the 'amateur' expert who really knows their subject.

      M OSM OSСарын өмнө
    • You seem to be very much a product of the current “just give me the basics” age we live in. This is why there are so many self proclaimed “experts” running around who don’t know squat. It is also why the so called news and interview shows on television can barely be credited with even skimming through information, all the while giving people the illusion that they are informed.

      mercoidmercoidСарын өмнө
  • ....why is it over? There needs to be moar to the that video!!

    Adam the ThirdAdam the ThirdСарын өмнө
  • Boy, that transition from vacuum pressure to actual steam pressure, around 6:50, was a little vague. I still didn't get when the change-over was made. And are you mixing up cylinder heads with pistons and with cylinders?

    Alex TAlex TСарын өмнө
  • can you do a video about liferaft and other rescue and safety systems?

    Bart BolsBart BolsСарын өмнө
  • US Navy US Marines US Air Force US Army US Coast Guard - Lincoln Eisenhower Republican Brad Hartliep swore an oath to Protect and Defend The United States of America, our People, our National Security and our Country's Allies against Soviet, Chinese and Russian Aggression - and as your 2024 President, Brad Hartliep will immediately pass a National Defense Budget that provides for 40 Brand New US Navy Destroyers to support our Carriers and our Cruisers, to built as quickly and as professionally as possible, 20 Brand New US Navy Cruisers to support our Carrier Task Fleets, 80 Brand New Frigates to protect our Destroyers and our Merchant Marines, 400 Brand New US Navy and US Marine Corps Carrier-Capable Fighters, 200 Brand New US Air Force Ground Assault A-10 Warthogs to support our US Marine and US Army Ground Assault Forces, 200 Unmanned Drones to protect and defend our Battle Spaces, 400 Brand New US Air Force F-15 Eagles, Brand New USN and USMC Assault Landing Craft, Brand New Squad-Level Weapons Systems for USMC and US Army Ground Troops, Brand New Protective Combat Gear for all services, and a Budget that provides for massively increased Military Personnel to support the operations of all ships and all squadrons, higher monthly incomes for all ranks, increased promotions, increased recognition for your services and sacrifices, awards and medals that you deserve, better healthcare and disability services for active duty and Veterans, and a President and Chief of Staff that cares for you and will do everything in our power to protect and defend our Military Troops in harm's way .. Vote Brad Hartliep 2024 President and Launch America Forward ..

    Brad HartliepBrad HartliepСарын өмнө
  • A quality history lesson of crank shaft rotation. 10/10 would screw shaft again.

    TrevorTrevorСарын өмнө
  • "cylinder head" != "piston"

    Railgap EsotericaRailgap EsotericaСарын өмнө
  • Maravilloso Me gusta

    juan asanellijuan asanelliСарын өмнө
  • Thanks for a great & thuro video. Loved it.

    Norman DauphinNorman DauphinСарын өмнө
  • now all we need is the development of Naval Turrets!

    logion567logion567Сарын өмнө
  • BEST ASMR

    Ben PlummerBen PlummerСарын өмнө
  • Dear Drach: at 4:13, you say steam pressure causes the cylinder head to rise. I beg your pardon, please understand that the heads are affixed to the ends of the barrel and never move ... it is the piston that reciprocates in a piston engine, taking the piston rod, the crosshead, the connecting (con) rod, and the crank throw, along with it. With that snarky critique out of the way, I tip my hat to your excellent and very entertaining channel!

    Frederic NystromFrederic NystromСарын өмнө
  • Another wonderful video. Well researched. Thank you for taking your time to understand and accurately articulate the components related to steam engines. Call me a pedant, but it frustrates me to no end when people pretend to know what they're talking about and do not take the ten seconds to do the internet research....

    Wesley HarcourtWesley HarcourtСарын өмнө
  • Fabulous presentation. The best video I've seen on MNthe for some time. Top notch!

    Rod BennettRod BennettСарын өмнө
  • One special problem marine diesels have is that they need compressed air to turn them over to start them up. If your compressed air tank is punctured by battle damage, you can’t restart. My father was on a diesel engined merchant ship bombed at Milne Bay in 1942, and a bomb splinter punctured the air reservoir tank. Couldn’t start the engine and, even when the tank was welded up, couldn’t fill it with compressed air since that required the engine to be running. Ship had to be towed to Brisbane for repairs.

    Glenn SimpsonGlenn SimpsonСарын өмнө
  • not the cylinder head was raised, but the piston

    jan van ruthjan van ruthСарын өмнө
  • that was terrific..

    Mark AkinMark AkinСарын өмнө
  • Understanding the limitations of metallurgy and mechanics, was there ever consideration of inline steam engines?

    DrcthruDrcthruСарын өмнө
  • BTW, as with the triple-expansion engines making a comeback in WWII due to limitations around turbine (and reduction gear) production, the turbo electric (TE) drive also made a bit of a comeback then; with the Buckley and Rudderow-class destroyer escorts and the mass produced T2 tankers all being built with TE plants due to bottlenecks in production of reduction gears.

    Jonathan SmithJonathan SmithСарын өмнө
  • modern submarines have a backup electric drive system on the steam turbines and the diesel generator

    shieldbreaker's last puppetshieldbreaker's last puppetСарын өмнө
  • Isn’t it remarkable that sailing ships continued to evolve all the way to the opening of the Panama Canal in 1910. The best cargo sailing ships were built between 1900-1910. They were efficient, requiring crews of 1 person per 200 tons of cargo, were sailed economically at a speed matching steam ships, and actually used tiny steam ‘donkey’ engines to drive the winches that hauled in and let go the yards, which by then were all made of steel, as were the hulls of the ships.

    TommyTwobatsTommyTwobatsСарын өмнө
  • This is like Discovery Channel classic :-)

    zapfanzapfanzapfanzapfanСарын өмнө
  • As a kid, the only family holiday we could afford was going to Echuca in Victoria. Our aunty had a house out of town we could use on her property. It was just big enough for 4 families to have a room each. We would take a ride on the paddle steamers that still run on the murry River. I think it was one of the few times the owner of the steamer had seen 15 kids and 3 fathers all watching his every move, bugging him with questions and not the country as it passed by. It started a mechanical fascination in us kids that has led to three heavy plant mechanics, two farmers that restore old tractors, an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer, a printing press mechanic, a deep drilling specialist geologist, a jet engineering professor and a hydro power plant maintenance manager. 4 of us are fire-fighters as well. I hope it also led to some proud parents as well.

    Hairy DairyManHairy DairyManСарын өмнө
  • At 4:20 it's the piston that goes up and down, not the cylinder head. Technically a steam engine does not have a cylinder head but cylinder covers. Cylinder heads are for IC engines. The picture of the trunk engine may not make sense to most people. The connecting rod is attached to a large tube which runs down the middle of the cylinder and has sliding seals at each end. The piston, which you continue to call the cylinder head, is the large structure in the middle of the cylinder which is attached to the tube and travels backwards and forwards with it, propelled by steam. The reason for this is to shorten the engine so it could lie sideways within the hull. Also, gearing does not significantly reduce the power available from an engine; it increases or decreases the torque. Due to the propeller law which is cubic, the power required to turn a screw at low speed is quite low. The most likely problem with gears in the first era was that making precision gears didn't become feasible at large sizes till the 1850s, so it's quite possible that roughness in the gears caused starting difficulties. Titanic and its sister ships used triple expansion engines, but the low pressure steam output was used to drive a steam turbine that produced more power than either of the reciprocators. The biggest problem of the reciprocator is that most of the energy of the steam is available at low, not high, pressure, and reciprocators need enormous cylinders to use low pressure steam. In the Titanic, the turbine works from just above atmospheric pressure to vacuum. The implication is that all-turbine warships not only had lower vibration than reciprocators but were far more fuel efficient, allowing the use of relatively expensive oil which was easier and safer to store and use than coal. Vibration of reciprocators is not alleviated by lubrication, but as engine speeds and powers increased more lubrication was needed. Attempts were made to reduce vibration by using multiple low pressure cylinders, and by stacking the high pressure cylinder on top of the intermediate. This could give an engine with 3 cranks all with a similar piston load, which with 120 degree angles and a power stroke every 60 degrees greatly reduced vibration. This was used with some small US warships, but about this time the Parsons turbine appeared. Incidentally, the Parsons impulse/reaction turbine was essential to making turbine warships possible as earlier turbine designs had to rotate too fast for any feasible gearing. The other factor was the development of large machine tools that could turn out precision turbine reduction gears which could be as much as 2.5m in diameter.

    Alfred WedmoreAlfred WedmoreСарын өмнө
  • The piston was not sucked down, it was pushed down when the atmospheric pressure exceeded the cooling steam's pressure.

    John SpurrellJohn SpurrellСарын өмнө
  • What about Stirling Engines?

    Colin ElyColin ElyСарын өмнө
  • Did you say Century? 1820 to now is two centuries.

    Brynn RogersBrynn RogersСарын өмнө
  • Great timing on this video! My buddy and I were just talking about ship power trains last weekend and you answered some questions we had! Thank you!

    Icy CoolIcy CoolСарын өмнө
  • Surely Drach is a tech priest if he possess such amazing knowledge! Bless the Omnissiah!

    DeltaV2TLIDeltaV2TLIСарын өмнө
  • These vids could use some circles or arrows pinpointing the part thats being talked about imo, I still have no idea how that side lever devil contraption is supposed to work

    CalgarGTXCalgarGTXСарын өмнө
  • So please explain to me when steam train engines or Locomotives came into affect, in your time line?

    Tito DalessandroTito DalessandroСарын өмнө
    • Non niche/experimental steam locomotives show up in the mid-1820's

      DrachinifelDrachinifelСарын өмнө
  • Nuclear power is the same as the old steam turbines, you just have nigh-unlimited fuel for the boilers.

    Delivery McGeeDelivery McGeeСарын өмнө
    • And don't have to worry about stack gases...

      Gregory WrightGregory WrightСарын өмнө
  • Guy makes a 45 minute video talking about water. And I enjoyed every minute of it.

    Hailfire97Hailfire97Сарын өмнө
  • Figuring out ship's propellers? *Isambard Kingdom Brunel has entered the chat.*

    YaivenovYaivenovСарын өмнө
  • Thanks for sharing. 😉👌🏼

    John ThimakisJohn ThimakisСарын өмнө
  • That was a very informative general view of propulsion. Thankyou. I am very interested in the 550 ML coastal patrol boats used in the UK during WW1. They were made by the ELCO company in the USA, were wooden with a 3 lb Hotchkiss gun and depth charges to discourage submarines. My grandfather served in ML167 as CPO in the engine room and while I have gathered a lot of information for a detailed model I suspect you can access even more! Anyway I can only hope.

    Bill RadfordBill RadfordСарын өмнө
  • "...than a turbine that had stripped it's blades and had probably explosively disassembled itself." Typical Drachinifel - Love it!!

    Kevin LawtonKevin LawtonСарын өмнө
  • 14:32 Gearing up doesn't divide the power, it divides the torque. There are some transmitted power losses, but they are in general not proportional to the gear ratio. The same applies to gearing down the steam turbine at 34:33: more torque, not more power.

    Paul JurczakPaul JurczakСарын өмнө
  • dove down to look at a sunken British Gunboat lost prior to WW1 in the West Indies. Just a mass of pipes and tubes left and the unidentifiable hulks of boilers etc...Interesting dive to see warship history displayed in a real cutaway as the hull plating had been shed revealing the internal structures. Thanks for the updates to my memories.

    David TuckerDavid TuckerСарын өмнө
  • With the reciprocating engines, How come they didn't use counterweights on the crankshafts? One of the drawbacks with the Texas was the fact it had vibrations ay high speed. It isn't as much a problem with merchant ships as they don't run at high power.

    Beverly ChmelikBeverly ChmelikСарын өмнө
  • It is also worth mentioning in your discussion of turbo-electric drives, the choice to select this type over a direct drive with reduction gears was also due to the extensive time required to cut the reduction gears each shaft needed (one bull gear plus one or more drive gears per shaft). In the early and middle 20th Century, a bull gear required up to 5 years to be completely and properly cut - and the wartime need (combined with the limited number of machining facilities that could do this type of work) meant that turbo-electric drives had to be used more as a matter of absolute need rather than preference, especially on larger ships.

    Jon651Jon651Сарын өмнө
  • Excellent video right up my alley, thanks for your work. I visited Charlie Parsons' Turbinia in Newcastle, quite a historic piece of machinery!

    English SailorEnglish SailorСарын өмнө
  • You should a video on Railroad steam engines.

    Ben LahrmanBen LahrmanСарын өмнө
  • 34:31 A small correction: gearing does not change power, it changes torque (or force).

    Juan Ordóñez GalbánJuan Ordóñez GalbánСарын өмнө
  • i was like cool lets sweet short history of steam engines, 44 MINUTES! got time for 10 gonna watch it later! seems like good quality!

    La CaiLa CaiСарын өмнө
  • It's "compared with".

    Pete nPete nСарын өмнө
  • nice video!

    港Сарын өмнө
  • Oh no Drach found the Great Eastern

    TheAircool1TheAircool1Сарын өмнө
  • Oh I can rotate MY shaft alright ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

    Nexalian GamerNexalian GamerСарын өмнө
  • One failure of the diesels in the Deutschland class ships was their very bad reliability. I have read that they were so unreliable it repeatedly hindered their operations.

    Mark WalesMark WalesСарын өмнө
  • Marvelous film. Very well done.

    John BarhamJohn BarhamСарын өмнө
  • It would have been better if the engine designs being discussed was the engine designs displayed.

    Maytag MarkMaytag MarkСарын өмнө
  • At 4.12 did you mean "forced the cylinder head to rise"? Looking at the engraving, the cylinder head is firmly bolted down to its cylinder. If the piston head rose instead (as is normal), one would only need packing where the piston rod projected out of the cylinder head. The entire 'cylinder head rising' would result in a huge loss of steam along its circumference, especially owing to manufacturing tolerances of the time and wear during use.

    john jephcotejohn jephcoteСарын өмнө
  • If you want to see schematics of what some of these engines looked like in motion (plus quite some others), I found this some time ago: imgur.com/gallery/93Rnm. They are unfortunately unlabeled, but a keen observer should be able to identify at least a few mentioned in the video.

    Darryl MassonDarryl MassonСарын өмнө
  • This is an excellent documentary and the various types of engine throughout history requires a vast amount of research and I bow to this font of knowledge. However at 2:51 I think what you have in your drawing is the 1812 Comet, built by Henry Bell of Helensburgh. She was a passenger vessel and not a naval vessel and was wrecked around Loch Lhinne in 1820. The 4 paddle wheels are pretty unique to her, but were soon lost in a subsequent rebuild prior to her wrecking. She was replaced by the Comet II, also a passenger vessel as far as I know. Henry Bell was a very interesting character. Biography: The Ingenious Mr Bell by Brian D Osborne NOT to be confused with The Ingenious Mr Henry Bell by David Higgins. This Henry Bell was a Kings Lynn Architect who died in 1711. A full size 1962 replica of the 1812 Comet, is in Tesco's Car Park at Port Glasgow. This is on the site of Scott Lithgow's shipyard.

    Neil BainNeil BainСарын өмнө
  • very good!

    meixomeixoСарын өмнө
  • (Time index 29:01) You can still see Sir Charles Parsons Turbinia at The Discovery Museum Newcastle upon Tyne , Britain.

    Darren SmithDarren SmithСарын өмнө
  • The only system missed was the slave powered :>)

    AE BirkbeckAE BirkbeckСарын өмнө
  • 3 x 50% efficient propeller - a 150% efficient propeller? Something smells fishy here.

    migkillerphantommigkillerphantomСарын өмнө
  • What about the matter antimatter warp drive for ship propulsion?

    BlindMansRevenge2002BlindMansRevenge2002Сарын өмнө
  • What is the difference between types of horsepower measurement? You mention shaft and indicated, what does that mean?

    Stephen MontsaroffStephen MontsaroffСарын өмнө
  • Very interesting topic and well covered.

    Paul SearlsPaul SearlsСарын өмнө
  • Stop! You need help! NO NO NO! I will not!

    Brendan WoodBrendan WoodСарын өмнө
  • Steam Navies had helped to end the golden age of piracy.

    Rob NewmanRob NewmanСарын өмнө
  • This was quite interesting.

    harry bryanharry bryanСарын өмнө
  • Thank you! Nice overview for laypeople...it was very informative for me!

    Pete SheppardPete SheppardСарын өмнө
  • Turbo electric drive plants best with the all polluting fuel named uranium

    lukas Bollelukas BolleСарын өмнө
  • Thank you sir, and please keep making videos.

    E DE DСарын өмнө