The Infinite Pattern That Never Repeats

Simple rules of geometry meant that 5-fold symmetry was impossible as were crystals without a periodic structure. This turns out to be wrong. Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring a portion of this video. Click here to start using LastPass: ve42.co/LPs
Huge thanks to Prof. Paul Steinhardt for the interview on this topic. Check out his book ‘The Second Kind of Impossible’
If you'd like to learn more about Penrose tilings, go check out "Penrose Tiles to Trapdoor Ciphers" by Martin Gardener, which helped my research for this video.
Filmed by Gene Nagata (Potato Jet on MNthe)
Animations by Iván Tello and Jonny Hyman
Editing, Coloring, Music & Audio mastering by Jonny Hyman
Prague scenes filmed in 2012.
Special thanks to Raquel Nuno for helping with the tilings!
Additional Music from Epidemic Sound

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  • Roger Penrose was just awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics! Not for this pattern but “for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity”

    VeritasiumVeritasium6 сарын өмнө
    • husejn179husejn1797 өдрийн өмнө
    • It never repeats but the universe itself clearly does. Ok.

      Yodas Raytraced Retro StudiosYodas Raytraced Retro Studios8 өдрийн өмнө
    • That’s nice

      Itz_ClixzyItz_Clixzy12 өдрийн өмнө
    • Wait, the astronasts select by Skill where also 1.6! It all has a pattern, but has actually Not🥴

      Big SmokeBig Smoke14 өдрийн өмнө
    • DUDE! I saw this pattern in a movie (can't remember the name of the movie, scene was near the end, two characters standing on a plaza with the Penrose pattern in the tile beneath them), and I searched for it for an embarrassing amount of time with no luck. Thank you, thank you, THANK YOU! for scratching this mental itch that has been in the back of my mind for months. Ahhhhhhhhhhh.........

      Shawn HartmannShawn Hartmann15 өдрийн өмнө
  • hexagons are the bestagons

    Leo HaukipuroLeo Haukipuro7 минутын өмнө
  • Yay random number generator!

    Numero7 MojeangeringNumero7 MojeangeringЦагийн өмнө
  • I feel like you can use this to make a deterministic machine run a non deterministic algorithm. Maybe you can even derive a non-deterministic algorithm from this.

    AnteConfigAnteConfig2 цагийн өмнө
  • Kdo je tady Čech? ;)

    Tomáš HravěTomáš Hravě3 цагийн өмнө
  • Robert Burger??? I wish that was my surname

    Milyu VarionMilyu Varion14 цагийн өмнө
  • I would have thought that a pattern that doesn't repeat really isn't a pattern at all, but rather a progression, like the value of pi. I think it is obvious that such progressions can present the illusion of a pattern. The human brain is evolved to look for patterns in practically everything. Often, people think they see patterns where none actually exist, the same way they think they see faces in things, like the face of Jesus in a piece of burnt toast.

    Bill392Bill39215 цагийн өмнө
  • we're handling them on 2 dimension only. but when it comes to the higher dimension, everything can be possible in pattern.

    Sky KeeperSky Keeper16 цагийн өмнө
  • Sounds like Pi.

    SerunaXISerunaXI16 цагийн өмнө
  • I dunno, this Kepler fellow sounds kinda hexxed.

    SerunaXISerunaXI16 цагийн өмнө
  • “1969” nice

    no yesno yes18 цагийн өмнө
  • So, if any section of any Kites and Darts pattern can be matched to a section of a different one, how do we know that all the patterns of kites and darts are actually different patters? You said that the only way to tell the patterns apart would be to look at the entire pattern, which is physically impossible, so if we have no way to prove that the patterns are different, how do we know they are different?

    Holiest RavioliHoliest Ravioli19 цагийн өмнө
  • are you sure it never repeats i can see a hell of a lot of half and full cycles with in it

    tigertank909tigertank90921 цагийн өмнө
  • i become smarter from each video im watching

    VicVanProphetVicVanProphet21 цагийн өмнө
  • I rarely understand even half of what he says even though he is a pretty good teacher.

    I'm batmanI'm batman22 цагийн өмнө
  • And now guys you know why in ancient Greece entire philisophies and cults were created based on geometry and math

    AlecAlec23 цагийн өмнө
  • ads every 3 minutes, youtube has become a greedy bastard

    jan vandeveldejan vandevelde23 цагийн өмнө
  • 0:30 that lady at the door is like "wtf is going on here" lol

    Marius BraunMarius Braun23 цагийн өмнө
  • Hey the bigger pattern around 9:50 Forms Cubes stacked next to each other. How cool is that? I find that realy cool. A micropattern that mostly 'repeats' until the borders of the Macropattern.

    TechiTechiӨдрийн өмнө
  • Sorry dude. You lost me when you thought it was cool to walk into a European museum wearing shorts and a t-shirt with a commercial slogan on the front. You forgot your baseball cap and great big American flag.

    Daniel GrayDaniel GrayӨдрийн өмнө
  • This channel and thus man is very inspiring

    Stephan CallonStephan CallonӨдрийн өмнө
  • my mind is effectively blown

    Elif Göksu AlgınElif Göksu AlgınӨдрийн өмнө
  • Bruh

    「CELLO KID」「CELLO KID」Өдрийн өмнө
  • Go to 9:34. Mind blown!!!!

    Frances McCollumFrances McCollumӨдрийн өмнө
  • math is weird...

    Coolcoolguy65Coolcoolguy65Өдрийн өмнө
  • I get why he has so much subscribers

    Mr. HanMr. HanӨдрийн өмнө
  • thumb down for commercial every 3 minutes

    grodt88grodt88Өдрийн өмнө
  • What am I missing all the tiles look the same to me, he says they don't repeat and clearly they do.

    MS ArchiveMS ArchiveӨдрийн өмнө
  • So that's how to pronounce moire.

    Poppy PalaisPoppy PalaisӨдрийн өмнө
  • Man looking at this amazing video and all the stuff about fibonacci sequence just makes me want to listen to Lateralus.

    PropozitorPropozitorӨдрийн өмнө
  • So the greatest randomness van exist from 50""50""

    marcello roosmarcello roosӨдрийн өмнө
  • brb re-tiling my bathroom

    Allen WilliamsonAllen WilliamsonӨдрийн өмнө
  • 16:15 you lost me there. I thought this was supposed to work any way possible

    remconetremconetӨдрийн өмнө
  • the thing is that we try to understand the world so much but in reality there is no understanding. like the quasicrystal, it seems to not abide by our arbitrary "laws" of nature, and yet it exists. nature doesn't have laws that it always follows and we should stop shutting down things like for instance a quasicrystal because we think we know it all

    AnymAnymӨдрийн өмнө
  • 0:51 They're the barriers that get put up around you when you get friend-zoned by someone.

    Victor HuffVictor Huff2 өдрийн өмнө
  • Wait...isn't a pattern supposed to repeat by definition of what makes a pattern?

    Victor HuffVictor Huff2 өдрийн өмнө
  • Allow me to state the (painfully!) obvious: You have an extraordinary mind! Love the videos; thank you.

    ian1856ian18562 өдрийн өмнө
  • 9:00 - Funny...i am sure he did not want to, but that moving pattern is a worst case scenario for video compression. You can see, how the quality dips down, as the algorithm struggles to keep the number of refreshed areas to a minimum, but the picture is just too much noise, to keep a good quality, at the given bitrate. As an (shortened) explanation for those who do not know: Modern video codecs obviously are trying to keep the size of a video-file down. One way they do this, is by cutting the image into tiles, which is funny, given the topic of this video. The algorithm then looks at these little pieces and compares the current frame with the next one. If a tile matches...or closely matches the one at the same position in the next frame, then only a reference to that tile is saved, which takes up less space. So one tile is then effectively used twice, because they didn’t change between frames. The more you compress a movie, the more it tries to find matching tiles and the „loser“ the rules for „What is matching?“ get. That also means, that the quality gets worse, because the tiles get matched with others, that aren‘t QUITE the same and at one point, our eyes notice. The desired file (to be exact the bitrate) size then dictates the number of original/true tiles can be saved, compared to just a reference. What does that mean in this context? Well 1, a compressing algorithm LOVES videos, that display the same thing, over and over again, because that means a lot of same-y tiles. And 2, the more the picture changes, the more original tiles must be saved. However we just established, that this number is finite. Not only is it finite, the algorithm has to spread each tile evenly, it cannot spend every tile in the first second, because then there is nothing left for the rest. That rate, in which the tiles are „spent“ is basically, what the bitrate is. Number 3: Knowing that, we also know, that the bitrate is also finite, which means, if the number of changed tiles per frame exceeds the number of tiles the algorithm can spend, it is forced to widen the rules (remember the size and bitrate cannot be increased), as described above, which leads to a blurry video, the higher that difference is. That noise he created CONSTANTLY changes and quickly spends our tile-budget and that is why it starts looking blurry. Why am i writing this? I have no goddamn clue, i just found it interesting!

    IncapableLPIncapableLP2 өдрийн өмнө
  • NOT INTRESTED MNthe get this outta ma face

    Drago DonDrago Don2 өдрийн өмнө
  • my bwain hurts qwq

    petfroggy dbmpetfroggy dbm2 өдрийн өмнө
  • Wow you mean people guessed they knew amazing so they deceived self refuse correction refuse direction refuse truth Demand know can't explain don't understand yet try demand know arrogamt pathological liars I see true and just it's not pretty

    Jeremy MettlerJeremy Mettler2 өдрийн өмнө
  • Haha I was just watching Tom Scott's video about paid promotions he was spot on

    TerryTwoToesTerryTwoToes2 өдрийн өмнө
  • this is scary

    ΩΜΣGΛΩΜΣGΛ2 өдрийн өмнө
  • how boring, about to change position of track in 5, 4 , 3 .....

    Modulo AlgoritmoModulo Algoritmo2 өдрийн өмнө
  • Where did you get the two transparent sheets that you used to make the moire pattern?

    Marc ScillieriMarc Scillieri2 өдрийн өмнө
  • @1:31 DnD dice

    Eric RoschuniEric Roschuni2 өдрийн өмнө
  • holy life metaphor... god, its got me wanting to trip xD

    Emma FissingerEmma Fissinger2 өдрийн өмнө
    • Always respect psychedelics.

      Distran The Gloriously DeformedDistran The Gloriously DeformedӨдрийн өмнө
  • The perfect 20-minute Discovery channel time-killer episode.

    LolechiLolechi2 өдрийн өмнө
  • toooooooooooooo many ads 🤢

    shahab shafieeshahab shafiee2 өдрийн өмнө
  • "A portion" of the video was sponsored by LastPass?? First time I've ever heard that

    Mati NMati N3 өдрийн өмнө
  • I used to use LastPass but they had a network breach once. They are not open source so that their program/apps are not audited for backdoors. I use the Open Source product Bitwarden. It is audited by the community and... is cheaper.

    Christopher GroveChristopher Grove3 өдрийн өмнө
  • Does there exist a never repating tile pattern that is actually pleasing to look at? Like the idea of laser cutting some wood tiles and glueing them down interest me, but the patterns shown on this video would not work.

    scalorscalor3 өдрийн өмнө
  • My monkey brain understood like 0.000000001% but I love it!

    James RonJames Ron3 өдрийн өмнө
  • Music name 2:00??

    teka loves youteka loves you3 өдрийн өмнө
  • This video is impressively well made

    Bum pomBum pom3 өдрийн өмнө
  • How do you define aperiodic tiling mathematically? And is there a condition(s) that the shapes which form an aperiodic pattern must satisfy?

    Yahya BYahya B4 өдрийн өмнө
  • min 14:02 on each star is. a now german "in jedem stern ist auf den fünf enden oder straheln die gearade miteinader verbeunden sind im rechten winkel ein fünfeck zu sehn wie zuvor beschrieben. dass sechseck wie es bienenwaben haben ist nicht so gewollt es entwickelt sich durch kreise die aneinander gereiht werden wie eine kugel das größte volumen bei der kleinsten oberfläche hat so ergänzen sich körper des selben umfanges am besten im sechseck. ist ein gesetz der thermodynaik dass mir grad nicht einfällt, aber so ist es.

    bubblegumraybubblegumray4 өдрийн өмнө
  • Where can we buy thoses puzzles?

    heemin leeheemin lee4 өдрийн өмнө
  • Didnt understand 3/4 of what he said but ok.

    GrozaGroza4 өдрийн өмнө
  • I've never even heard of this but I'm extremely interested

    [content deleted][content deleted]4 өдрийн өмнө
  • UwU

    RILEY BENTONRILEY BENTON4 өдрийн өмнө
  • I mean, do you like weed?

    Alcreate.plAlcreate.pl4 өдрийн өмнө
  • If we had the chance to learn topics like we see in these videos in school, I would of payed a lot more attention

    Mensa XMensa X4 өдрийн өмнө
  • why did i smoke weed before this

    Owen KeelingOwen Keeling5 өдрийн өмнө
  • Pffft those are hexagons

    Me.Me.5 өдрийн өмнө
  • Wow!

    Avatar XAvatar X5 өдрийн өмнө
  • if it never repeats then it isn't a pattern...

    Dieseluk2kDieseluk2k5 өдрийн өмнө
  • hexagon are the bestagon

    Juan Miguel VerzosaJuan Miguel Verzosa5 өдрийн өмнө
  • could you make a 3D Aperiodic puzzle of a pyramid?

    Different 1Different 15 өдрийн өмнө
  • Watch pentagon is the best a gone

    David ShakespeareDavid Shakespeare5 өдрийн өмнө
  • We were always wondering what the 4th dimension looked like, well here's the 5th

    Calvin WeberCalvin Weber5 өдрийн өмнө
  • ILLUMINATI CONFIRMED

    Zoltán PappZoltán Papp5 өдрийн өмнө
  • I went to Prog and Pink Floyd wasn’t there and neither were any talking goats 0/10

    The Funny TV Man of the NightThe Funny TV Man of the Night5 өдрийн өмнө
  • watch this before bed because its satisfying

    Statue Of LibertyStatue Of Liberty6 өдрийн өмнө
  • I kind of hate all of this.

    Amy TurnerAmy Turner6 өдрийн өмнө
  • outside topic. i just realised weaponry has to give up alot of fault to the inverse square law some how.. packing factor, firing ammunition, and physics of projectiles all play together.. perfect pacing factor would be rectangular shells, ofcourse then it would fire and fly less efficiently because charges get most efficientcy from being circular.. whatever powder or charge doesnt burn evenly in rectangular chambers and a rectangular munition would be awful to use precisely

    60FPS60FPS6 өдрийн өмнө
  • I want to see someone make this pattern in Minecraft.

    Nameless DreadNameless Dread6 өдрийн өмнө
  • Can this pattern be used for encryption

    Lakers4LifeLakers4Life6 өдрийн өмнө
  • Confusing ass title

    Heated TurtleHeated Turtle6 өдрийн өмнө
  • Is it even a pattern then?

    KOMOKOMO6 өдрийн өмнө
  • Mind. Blown.

    Tamim AzizadahTamim Azizadah6 өдрийн өмнө
  • 12:18 what if one shapes was different and the person to find it would get something.

    Jack BrutonJack Bruton7 өдрийн өмнө
  • Could the tiling be used in encryption?

    Douglas CollinsDouglas Collins7 өдрийн өмнө
  • The luxuriant roast acly unpack because twilight cumulatively drum into a handsomely novel. automatic, rotten christmas

    jonki leshijonki leshi7 өдрийн өмнө
  • it does repeat

    Kyra _Kyra _7 өдрийн өмнө
  • This video is an example of people who have waaaaay too much time on their hands.

    1 11 17 өдрийн өмнө
  • Fascinating ! Even for a complete non-matematician as me...

    Michel P. VanwelkenhuyzenMichel P. Vanwelkenhuyzen7 өдрийн өмнө
  • imagine having ocd watching this

    AlixAlix7 өдрийн өмнө
  • I live in Czech

    Jáchym HanzlJáchym Hanzl7 өдрийн өмнө
  • Me just realizing that he could have chose any number for the atomic number of Veritasium but he chose 42(0): Nice

    Joseph UdoudoJoseph Udoudo7 өдрийн өмнө
  • Does anyone know where to buy one of those icosahedrons he has at 17:17

    Darren vermeerDarren vermeer7 өдрийн өмнө
  • The three fan antenatally brush because archaeology strangely bore beyond a watery school. true, pricey truck

    영하한영하한7 өдрийн өмнө
  • it's 4am somewhere

    professorquack supertrackprofessorquack supertrack7 өдрийн өмнө
  • As below, so above. Look at the International Institute for Conductors logo. It is a representation of a conductor standing in an icosahedron, one of the platonic solids. According to Rudolf Laban the architecture of our personal space reflects Keplr's vision of planetary space. Cool!

    Embodied ConductingEmbodied Conducting7 өдрийн өмнө
  • oh, please tell me this video is in a golden aspect ratio. i have been dying to know!

    NikoNiko7 өдрийн өмнө
  • It's not a pattern if it doesn't repeat

    StabvestStabvest7 өдрийн өмнө
  • Robert burger

    DonutRBLXDonutRBLX7 өдрийн өмнө
  • Math is amazing...I'm too stupid to understand :(

    J HJ H7 өдрийн өмнө
  • I understand.

    ZxayleZxayle7 өдрийн өмнө
  • I knew math would be important - I just chose not to pay attention. now I feel like I missed some magical universal language of numbers that puts me below other people

    Lewis FilbyLewis Filby7 өдрийн өмнө